Vol 7, No 4 (2021)

Review Article

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    Background: Students in different levels use schoolbags to carry books and other educational tools. Various studies showed that schoolbag affects musculoskeletal system and posture in children and adolescents. This systematic review study aimed to examine the relationship between schoolbag characteristics with musculoskeletal pain syndromes and posture in Iranian students.

    Methods: The search strategy was run in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), Magiran, and SID databases. The Persian or English- written original papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals were selected without any time limit. The eligible studies were classified based on pain location and postural alignment.

    Results: A total number of 2426 records were found in the databases. Thirteen studies were eligible for this study. The results showed that musculoskeletal disorders and postural abnormalities had a relatively high prevalence among Iranian students, and their prevalence was significantly higher in girls. Generally, it seems that carrying a schoolbag, carrying time, type of bag, and weight have a significant effect on the low back, wrist, shoulder, upper back, and neck pain. However, the carrying time and relative weight of the bag have a significant effect on thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and forward head posture.

    Conclusion: The factors such as weight of bag or backpack, carrying time, unilateral bag carrying, female gender, location of the schoolbag, and walking to school with a bag can affect musculoskeletal pain and posture in Iranian students.

Research Articles

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    Background: COVID-19 is spreading rapidly and potentially affects every person, including fracture patients. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate our primary months’ experience of surgical treatment of fractures in COVID-19 infected patients in order to assist in better decision-making in the next waves of the infection.


    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 patients with orthopedic trauma and COVID-19 infection were included from 2 trauma centers during February and March 2020.


    Results: Most of the patients were younger than 40 year of age. The most common COVID-19 related symptom at presentation was malaise, and a hypoxia rate of 85.7% was detected among the patients. Two-thirds of the fractures were in the lower extremities. One patient expired, but all others were discharged with no follow-up complications.


    Conclusion: Surgical management of fractures in COVID-19 patients is inevitable. To achieve this, sensitive screening techniques and standard protection measures are essential.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 77 | views: 96 | pages: 134-7

    Background: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a wide group of solid tumors with specific features originating from mesenchymal tissue. Radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy have been widely applied in the treatment of these tumors to enhance surgical outcomes. This study was performed aiming to compare the results of postoperative brachytherapy (BRT) versus RT in patients who underwent surgical resection of extremity STSs.


    Methods: In a prospective study from 2011 to 2015, 166 patients with extremity STS who underwent surgical resection were included. All visible tumors, scars, and drain sites, if present during the surgery, were resected. A number of 79 patients received adjuvant RT, and 87 patients underwent BRT after surgical resection.


    Results: In patients who were treated through RT, the two-year local control was 90% in comparison with 87% for those treated through BRT (P > 0.050). The total radiation dose was 3869 ± 370 and 3048 ± 465 in the patients who underwent RT and in the BRT group (P < 0.001), respectively. The number of radiation sessions in the RT group and BRT group was respectively 27.3 ± 4.5 and 5.8 ± 2.0 (P = 0.001).


    Conclusion: Not only BRT can lead to similar local control and survival in comparison with the conventional adjuvant RT, but it can also decrease the total dose and number of radiation sessions in patients with STS of the extremity, which is a high grade, in individuals who underwent surgical resection.

Case Report

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    Background: This is a novel observation report on patients undergoing spine surgery with a history of bariatric procedures.


    Acknowledgment of aggregated complications in such patients can prevent catastrophic outcomes.


    Case Report: We report three patients with spinal disorders and a history of bariatric surgery who developed pulmonary embolism following spine surgery. None of the patients had a history of venous thromboembolism or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) before this event. All patients were given thromboprophylaxis after both bariatric and spine surgery, including intra- and post-operative mechanical and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis upon discharge.


    Conclusion: Patients undergoing spine surgery with a history of bariatric procedures are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolic complications, including pulmonary embolism. We recommend extensive venous thromboembolic evaluation and treating these patients as high-risk individuals even in the absence of active thromboembolic disease.



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    Background: Osteochondroma is the most common benign tumor of the bone.


    Case Report: In this case, we present a young patient complaining of sensation of a mass in her abdomen since a few weeks ago and abdominal pain, which caused her visit to the clinic. Imaging studies revealed a well-defined lobulated lesion, and pathological examination was correlated with osteochondroma of the iliac bone.


    Conclusion: This site for osteochondroma is very rare, and this case was the solitary type.


    Osteochondroma; Pelvic Neoplasm; Diagnosis

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    Background: Lipomas are benign adipocyte proliferations and the most common tumors in soft tissue, although the appearance of this tumor in the hand is rare. The most common peripheral compressive neuropathy is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS caused by a space-occupying lesion such as lipomas is rare and causes more complications than idiopathic CTS.


    Case Report: This report was about a case of a 62-year-old woman with a giant painless mass on the first web of her right hand, with no systemic symptom and just a burning sensation in her fingers. After evaluations, CTS was diagnosed. Surgical dissection of the mass was performed, and the patient’s symptoms improved. The pathology report indicated that the mass was a lipoma.


    Conclusion: It is essential to examine the presence of different masses when the patient has neurological symptoms without justifying the history.